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Title What is a Frame? Frames as Distinct from Priming and Learning
Post date 02/23/2019
C1 Background and Explanation of Rationale • Previous research into framing effects in political science has left the mechanism behind frames underspecified. This has resulted in research that tests framing effects but incidentally creates a bundled treatment by either including a prime or persuasive information, meaning that previous estimates of framing effects are not necessarily capturing a distinct effect. Using a novel survey experiment, I build and test a new theory of framing that is distinct from priming and persuasion and tests the relative importance of this mechanism compared to previous mechanisms in producing a framing effect.
C2 What are the hypotheses to be tested?

• H1: People will infer that people from the sender’s party will weigh the framed attribute more heavily.
• H2: People will update their attribute weights conditional on the frame coming from a co-partisan.
• H3: When the accessibility and learning about the issue are held constant, framing effects will persist.

C3 How will these hypotheses be tested? *

• To test H1 I will look at the results of rank orders of attributes attributed to partisan. To reiterate, I expect participants to learn about a party if they are exposed to a frame from a partisan. I model this in the following way:
o ImportanceAttribute = β1 ∗ FrameAttribute ∗ party + β2 ∗ Frameattribute + β3 ∗ party
• To test H2, I will do a similar analysis but focused on the respondent.
o importanceattribute = β1 ∗ frameattribute ∗ party + β2 ∗ frameattribute + β3 ∗ party
o In this case, the analysis will be identical but party will take on a score of 1 if the frame came from a co-partisan. I expect β1 will be positive, meaning individuals update their weights conditional on receiving a frame from a co-partisan.
• To test H3, I will turn to the two frame condition and run the same model. In this case, I still expect β1 to be positive. If β2 is positive, this is evidence that learning is producing some of the framing effect. If β1 is smaller in this case than in the previous analyses of the one frame condition, that is evidence that accessibility is producing some of the framing effect.

C4 Country United States
C5 Scale (# of Units) 2000
C6 Was a power analysis conducted prior to data collection? No
C7 Has this research received Insitutional Review Board (IRB) or ethics committee approval? Yes
C8 IRB Number #190178XX
C9 Date of IRB Approval Feb 19, 2019
C10 Will the intervention be implemented by the researcher or a third party? Researchers
C11 Did any of the research team receive remuneration from the implementing agency for taking part in this research? No
C12 If relevant, is there an advance agreement with the implementation group that all results can be published? not provided by authors
C13 JEL Classification(s) not provided by authors